Kalymnos, (Greek: Κάλυμνος) is a Greek island and municipality in the southeastern Aegean Sea. It belongs to the Dodecanese and is located to the west of the peninsula of Bodrum (the ancient Halicarnassos), between the islands of Kos (south, at a distance of 12 km (7 mi)) and Leros (north, at a distance of less than 2 km (1 mi)): the latter is linked to it through a series of islets. Kalymnos lies between two and five hours away by sea from Rhodes.
In 2011 the island had a population of 16,001, making it the third most populous island of the Dodecanese, after Kos and Rhodes. It is known in Greece for the affluence of much of its population, and also stands as both the wealthiest member of the Dodecanese and one of the wealthiest Greek islands overall. The Municipality of Kalymnos, which includes the populated offshore islands of Pserimos (pop. 80), Telendos (94), Kalolimnos (2), and Pláti (2), as well as several uninhabited islets, has a combined land area of 134.544 square kilometres (51.948 sq mi) and a total population of 16,179 inhabitants.
Archipelago of Kalymnos
Kalymnos is neighbored by the small island of Telendos, which was once part of Kalymnos, but split off after a major earthquake in 554 AD and is now separated from Kalymnos by a channel of water (about 800 m wide).
Between Kalymnos and Kos lies the islet of Pserimos which is inhabited and, with an area of 11 square kilometres (4 sq mi), is one of the largest of the lesser islands of the Dodecanese. Near Pserimos lies the islet of Platí, and about 5 km (3 mi) to the NE lies the small islet of Kalolimnos.
The island is roughly rectangular in shape, with a length of 21 km (13 mi) and a width of 13 km (8 mi), and covers an area of 109 square kilometres (42 sq mi). Moreover, on the north side there is a peninsula which stretches in a northwest direction.
Kalymnos is mainly mountainous with complicated topography. There are three main chains going from W-NW to E-SE, and a fourth which innervates the peninsula. The coastline is very irregular, with many sheltered coves. There are some springs, one among them being thermal. The soil is mainly limestone-based, but in the valleys there is a compact bank of volcanic tuff, the relic of an ancient volcano, located near the village of Kantouni. The island is mainly barren, except for the two fertile valleys of Vathi and Pothia, where olives, oranges and vines are grown.
Earthquakes are a frequent occurrence around Kalymnos.
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